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Raccolta di articoli di Franca Colozzo
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- Politica

Erdoğanís Turkey

Hagia Sophia  -  Santa Sofia a Istanbul (TURKEY)

Erdoğan's Turkey

  • Data di pubblicazione: 13 ottobre 2019
Stato: online


What destiny can be reserved for Turkey, the history and the events taking place under our incredulous eyes will tell. Having been for work reasons for a seven-year period in that country, I take the opportunity to raise my voice without going into the merits of current political events. To the tangled political situation that turns on the Arabian Springs, on the Kurdish question and on the Middle East question, are added further pieces related to hegemony on territories, such as Kurdistan and Syria, where by now any possibility of action is precluded, especially after outbreak of the Syrian civil war and the establishment of a terror regime linked to Al Qaeda and ISIS.

The Arab Spring, which radiated from Algeria to Tunisia, up to the Maghreb and the Mashreq and suffocated in Syria in blood, certainly did not facilitate the current situation. Just think of the wave of refugees that has poured into the territories located in the extreme foothills of southern Turkey, on the border with Syria ...

Today it seems that the extremes touch each other, like the lines parallel to the infinite according to Euclidean geometry. Absurd, isn't it? And yet it is not if the terrorist danger knocks on Turkey's doors. Sunnis against Shiites contend for power in Iraq; Al Qaeda has generated that monstrous creature that is ISIS or "Daesh", with its Caliphate of terror in southern Iraq; the Salafite fundamentalists weave plots in the shadow of the mosques and the Komeinists settle on extreme positions, anti-American and anti-Western.

This escalation of Islamist drift has already infected Libyans, Tunisians and Egyptians. Compare the data of the last elections of the latter: in Tunisia the Islamist party had won; while in Egypt the "Muslim Brothers" had prevailed, at first, to then be ousted from power by a military coup ... What does Europe do in the midst of this mishmash? It remains to watch, gripped by an unprecedented economic crisis and by the English Brexit of June 23, 2016 that are likely to make it implode. Meanwhile, Libya after Gaddafi is fragmented into more tribal souls, each of which intends to prevail over the others, while the Caliphate has settled in Sirte, a few kilometers from the Italian coasts and continues to recruit desperate young people, particularly Tunisians.

Power has turned into a monster that grows larger every day, devouring everything and overwhelming balances, long established, on which the West had bet. Now that Western aid languishes because of lack of money, the misery that spreads in the air inevitably leads to a religious drift on which the more fundamentalist fringes are based. As a result, tourism has collapsed both in Tunisia and in Egypt due to riots and destabilization. In this context of devastation, unimaginable only a few years ago, the germ of discord was planted on which Iran blows. A wind of war that does not promise anything good ...

This gambling has shaken the nerves of Western rulers, terrified that the Strait of Hormuz could be closed, with all the imaginable repercussions for oil going to the West ... The fundamentalist drift seems inevitable even for a country like Turkey that so far it has remained on secular positions, such as to guarantee the geo-political balance in the entire surrounding area.

Have you seen the skilled strategic maneuvers of Prime Minister Erdoğan who managed to anticipate the moves of European partners during the Arab Springs? Europe, unable to draw up a single political strategy for North Africa and the Middle East, has been overtaken by Turkish decision-making.

Erdoğan's blitz in Libya, Tunisia and Egypt, with unexpected timing, wanted to send a signal: Turkey, shaking off the European status of member state - not yet perfected due to lack of will to respect the civil rights required by the Union as a conditio sine qua non for its official entry into Europe - it wanted to underline its hegemonic role within the Mediterranean chessboard as a lay Islamic state.

Able to dialogue more successfully with neighboring Muslim peoples than other European interlocutors, it has woven a series of surprise relations with those countries that emerged from the war, like Libya, or from the uncertain outcomes of the Arab Springs ... Now, after the coup suffered or ridden for political reasons by President Erdoğan, the situation in Turkey is even more deteriorated with an unpredictable epilogue that hopefully does not lead to the civil war in that country.

But meanwhile his current policy aims to destroy the Kurds in Syria ... And everyone is watching as the carnage of the Kurds, used by the US against Daesh and now abandoned to their fate, does not stop. And the world is watching impetuously, while the USA, like Pontius Pilate, wash their hands ...






- Religione

ISLAM e Misticismo

ISLAM e  Misticismo nell’opera di

Shams-i Tabrīzī - Jalāl ad-Dīn Moḥammad Rūmī - Iqbal Masih




Il misticismo che collega le opere di questi tre grandi uomini e pensatori dell’Islam, anche a distanza di tempo tra loro, è come un fiume che scorre verso il mare della fede e della spiritualità, portando con sé il fertile humus che ha dato origine a grandi civiltà  quali quella afghana, pakistana, persiana.

Shams-i Tabrīzī (in lingua persiana شمس تبریزی; Tabriz, 1185 – Khoy, 1248) è stato un mistico, poeta e filosofo persiano accreditato di essere stato il maestro e guida spirituale di Gialal al-Din Rumi, che lo ha ricordato con deferenza nelle sue opere, in particolare in Diwan-i Shams-i Tabrīzī Maqalat sia stato scritto durante gli ultimi anni di vita di Shams, come suoi discorsi di uomo anziano.

Nel complesso,  danno un'interpretazione mistica dell'Islam e contengono consigli spirituali. Alcuni estratti dal Maqalat permettono di percepire i pensieri di Shams. Rumi fu il suo discepolo devoto, in accordo alla tradizione. Vissuti entrambi nello stesso periodo, furono in contatto quando  Rumi, in isolamento a Konya per un periodo di quaranta giorni, prima di fuggire a Damasco, ebbe la possibilità di assorbire da lui tutta la profonda spiritualità che lo contraddistingueva. La tomba di Shams-i Tabrizi è stata recentemente proposta per essere riconosciuta come patrimonio dell'umanità dell'UNESCO.

I Maqalat-e Shams-e Tabrizi (Discorsi di Shams-i Tabrīzī) è un'opera in prosa, in lingua persiana, scritta da Shams in cui cerca di infondere una profonda spiritualità

Il suo messaggio che sarà poi trasfuso nei Mevlana di Konya (Turchia) è sempre valido: non basta essere un  faqih (studioso di religione), ma bisogna andare oltre verso universi inesplorati di fede, oltre il misticismo stesso, il sufismo stesso.

Introspezione che va oltre il proprio essere, non guardando ai difetti altrui, ma criticando prima se stessi e cercando quel fiume d’acqua pura cui abbeverarsi, che si chiama fede. Occorre una pioggia di benedizioni, cercando di scavalcare le proprie umane limitazioni per tendere al bene supremo ed assoluto: Dio.

La sua raccolta di poesia mistica si abbevera alle pure fonti del sapere e la sua gioia è come acqua sorgiva, cristallina e trasparente, contornata da profumate essenze floreali,  che riecheggiano nei versi del suo discepolo Mulukshah in "Rose Garden di Shams" (Gulzar-i Shams).


Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī (Balkh, 30 settembre 1207 – Konya, 17 dicembre 1273), noto come Rumi جلال‌الدین محمد رومی, come Mevlānā in Turchia e come Mowlānā (persiano: مولانا‎‎ ) in Iran e Afghanistan, è stato il fedele diretto discepolo di  Shams-i Tabrīzī.

Fu un ʿālim, teologo musulmano sunnita,  raffinato poeta mistico di origine persiana, nonché  prosecutore dell’opera del suo sommo maestro Shams-i Tabrīzī.  Egli è l’espressione spirituale, tradotta in poesia, portata ai più alti vertici della perfezione formale e concettuale.

Fondatore della confraternita sufi dei "dervisci rotanti" (Mevlevi), è considerato il massimo poeta mistico della letteratura persiana. Quando morì, i suoi seguaci si organizzarono nell'ordine Mevlevi, che, tramite  danze rituali e musica al suono del flauto ney (da Rumi esaltato nel proemio del suo Masnavī) , consentiva di giungere a stati meditativi di intensa partecipazione per avvicinarsi a stadi di perfezione sempre più prossimi alla divinità, quasi scorporandosi dalla materialità del proprio corpo.

 A Konya, in Asia Minore, dove si stabilì la famiglia, Rumi fu seguito da suo padre, un predicatore di gran fama, nelle scienze teologiche, e, dopo la morte di quest'ultimo, si perfezionò anche nella mistica. Egli stesso divenne una guida spirituale molto conosciuta sia per le prediche sia per la dottrina, e un gruppo di studiosi si raccolse intorno a lui per redigere una serie di scritti teologici. La realtà terrena, sostiene esplicitamente Rūmī, non è che un riflesso della realtà simbolica che è la vera realtà.

Due eventi spirituali furono determinati nella vita di Rūmī:  uno fu l'incontro, nel 1244, con il misterioso personaggio noto come Shams-i Tabrīzī ("il sole di Tabrīz"), suo maestro spirituale a sua volta profondo studioso delle scienze teologiche e giuridiche islamiche, particolarmente sapiente nei riguardi della scuola di Shāfiʿī, lo sciafeismo. Per un anno entrambi si dedicarono interamente ad una ricerca spirituale, ma dopo la scomparsa di Shams in misteriose condizioni,  Rumi  ebbe un momento di particolare capacità creativa che lo portò a comporre una raccolta di poesie comprendenti ben trentamila versi.

Più avanti negli anni compose un'altra raccolta di componimenti poetici suddivisa in sei libri contenente più di 40mila strofe. Suo figlio Walad scrisse una biografia del padre, che custodiva gli ordini dei Dervisci–Mevlana, come testimonianza vivente del suo fondatore.


Il secondo evento fu la conoscenza, a Damasco, di Ibn Arabi, grande mistico islamico, tra i più grandi teorizzatori della waḥdat al-wujūd o "unità dell'essere". Rūmī riesce a fondere in modo perfetto l'entusiasmo inebriato di Dio di Shams-i Tabrīz, con le sottili elucubrazioni e le visioni di Ibn al-'Arabi.

La visione mistica di Rumi, attraverso i Mevlana o dervishi rotanti, ancora affascina al di là delle poesie e del misticismo di cui è intrisa tutta la sua opera. A distanza di secoli, un invisibile filo  unisce ai primi due la figura, anch’essa altamente ascetica di Iqbal Masih.


Iqbal Masih, in urdu اقبال مسیح (Muridke, 1983 – Muridke, 16 aprile 1995), è stato un bambino operaio, sindacalista e attivista pakistano, diventato un simbolo della lotta contro il lavoro minorile. Nato nel 1983 in una famiglia molto povera,  già lavorava a quattro anni in una fornace, a cinque fu venduto dal padre ad un venditore di tappeti per pagare un debito di pochi dollari. Costretto a lavorare 10-12 ore al giorno, incatenato al telaio e sottonutrito, tanto da riportare un danno alla crescita, riuscì nel 1992 a uscire di nascosto dalla fabbrica ed a  partecipare insieme ad altri bambini a una manifestazione del Bonded Labour Liberation Front (BLLF), organizzazione fondata da Ullah Khan che ottenne nello stesso anno la promulgazione del Bonded Labor System Abolition Act. Ritornato nella fabbrica di tappeti, si rifiutò di continuare a lavorare malgrado le percosse. Il padrone sostenne che il debito anziché diminuire era aumentato a diverse migliaia di rupie, pretendendo di inserirvi lo scarso cibo dato a Iqbal, supposti errori di lavorazione eccetera. La famiglia fu costretta dalle minacce ad abbandonare il villaggio, Iqbal, ospitato in un ostello dalla BLLF, ricominciò a studiare. Dal 1993 cominciò a viaggiare, a partecipare a conferenze internazionali. Prese da allora avvio la sua avventura in giro per il mondo per sensibilizzare l'opinione pubblica sui diritti negati dei bambini lavoratori pakistani, contribuendo  così al dibattito sulla schiavitù mondiale e sui diritti internazionali dell'infanzia. Nel dicembre del 1994 presso la Northeastern University di Boston ricevette il premio Reebok Human Rights Award. Vista la sua giovanissima età venne creata una categoria apposita: “Youth in Action”. Nel febbraio 1995 partecipò ad un incontro tra rappresentanti del BLLF e dell'industria dei tappeti, su invito del giornale “The Nation”, in cui il confronto raggiunse toni duri. Forse  quell’incontro gli fu fatale. Morì in circostanze misteriose,  nella sua città natale di Muridke (Pakistan), il 16 aprile 1995. Gli sono state intitolate diverse scuole nel mondo occidentale; in Italia, in particolare. Nel 2000 ricevette alla memoria il premio “World's Children's Prize” per i diritti dei bambini.

Il suo messaggio rimasto alla storia è: «Nessun bambino dovrebbe impugnare mai uno strumento di lavoro. Gli unici strumenti di lavoro che un bambino dovrebbe tenere in mano sono penne e matite».

Per concludere, avendo tratteggiato tre figure di spicco che hanno fatto la storia del percorso spirituale ed attivista in difesa dei bambini, si evince che il messaggio dell’Islam è un messaggio di amore e di pace. Quest’ultima in particolare vede nell’azione congiunta, per quanto dislocata in epoche diverse, di spiritualità ed attivismo le componenti costituenti i pilastri dell’Islam. Oggi, nel mese in cui si celebra il Ramadan, si avverte sempre più forte la necessità di unire la spiritualità, mai sopita di Shams-i Tabrīzī e di Jalāl ad-Dīn Moḥammad Rūmī  con l’attivismo e la lezione umanitaria di Iqbal Masih.


Alle soglie del terzo Millennio, quando pare che il mondo sia più che mai intriso d’odio (la fonte scura nella poesia di Rumi, sorgente di dolore e di male) e da guerre (Siria, Yemen, etc.), quando sembrano naufragare le ultime speranze (clima, ambiente, inquinamento, mancanza di valori, etc.), ecco che si eleva la voce profonda della poesia che affonda le sue radici nelle sorgenti del bene, della spiritualità, in una rinnovata fiducia nell’uomo e nella scintilla divina che è in lui. 





ISLAM and Mysticism in the work of

Shams-i Tabrīzī - Jalāl ad-Dīn Moḥammad Rūmī - Iqbal Masih 


The mysticism that connects the works of these three great men and thinkers of Islam, even after sometime between them, is like a river that flows towards the sea of ​​faith and spirituality, bringing with it the fertile humus that gave rise to great civilizations such as the Afghan, Pakistani, Persian.

Shams-i Tabrīzī (in Persian language شمس تبریزی; Tabriz, 1185 - Khoy, 1248) was a Persian mystic,  poet and philosopher credited with having been the teacher and spiritual guide of Gialal al-Din Rumi, who recalled him with deference in his works, particularly in Diwan-i Shams-i Tabrīzī Maqalat, it was written during the last years of Shams's life, as his speeches as an old man.

Overall, they give a mystical interpretation of Islam and contain spiritual advice. Some excerpts from the Maqalat allow us to perceive Shams's thoughts. Rumi was his devoted disciple, according to tradition. Both of them lived in the same period, they were in contact when Rumi, in isolation in Konya for a period of forty days, before fleeing to Damascus, had the opportunity to absorb from him all the profound spirituality that distinguished him. The tomb of Shams-i Tabrizi was recently proposed to be recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Maqalat-e Shams-e Tabrizi (Discourses of Shams-i Tabrīzī) is a prose work, in Persian language, written by Shams in which he tries to infuse a deep spirituality

His message which will then be transfused into the Mevlana of Konya (Turkey) is always valid: it is not enough to be a faqih (scholar of religion), but it is necessary to go beyond unexplored universes of faith, beyond mysticism itself, Sufism itself. Introspection that goes beyond one's own being, not looking at the faults of others, but criticizing oneself first and looking for that river of pure water to drink from, which is called faith. We need a shower of blessings, trying to bypass our own human limitations to strive for the supreme and absolute good: God.

His collection of mystical poetry is watered with pure sources of knowledge and his joy is like crystal water, transparent, surrounded by fragrant flower essences, which echo in the verses of his disciple Mulukshah in "Rose Garden of Shams" (Gulzar- the Shams).


Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī (Balkh, 30 September 1207 - Konya, 17 December 1273), known as Rumi جلال‌الدین محمد رومی, as Mevlānā in Turkey and as Mowlānā (Persian: مولانا) in Iran and Afghanistan, was the faithful direct disciple of Shams-i Tabrīzī.

He was an ʿālim, a Sunni Muslim theologian, a refined mystic poet of Persian origin, and a continuator of the work of his great master Shams-i Tabrīzī. He is the spiritual expression, translated into poetry, brought to the highest levels of formal and conceptual perfection.

Founder of the Sufi brotherhood of "whirling dervishes" (Mevlevi), he is considered the greatest mystical poet of Persian literature. When he died, his followers organized themselves in the order Mevlevi, which, through ritual dances and music to the sound of the flute ney (from Rumi exalted in the preface of his Masnavī), allowed to reach meditative states of intense participation to approach stages of perfection ever closer to divinity, almost separating from the materiality of one's body.

In Konya, in Asia Minor, where the family settled, Rumi was followed by his father, a renowned preacher, in the theological sciences, and, after his death, he also perfected himself in mysticism.

He himself  became a well-known spiritual guide for both sermons and doctrine, and a group of scholars gathered around him to write a series of theological writings.

The earthly reality, explicitly supports Rūmī, is nothing but a reflection of the symbolic reality that is the true reality.

Two spiritual events were determined in the life of Rūmī: one was the meeting, in 1244, with the mysterious character known as Shams-i Tabrīzī ("the sun of Tabrīz"), his spiritual teacher in turn a profound scholar of theological sciences and Islamic juridical, particularly wise in regard to the school of Shāfifeī, the sciafeismo. For a year they both devoted themselves entirely to a spiritual search, but after the disappearance of Shams in mysterious conditions, Rumi had a moment of particular creative ability that led him to compose a collection of poems including thirty thousand verses.

Later in the years he composed another collection of poetic compositions divided into six books containing more than 40 thousand stanzas. His son Walad wrote a biography of his father, who kept the orders of the Dervishes – Mevlana, as a living testimony of his founder.

The second event was the knowledge, in Damascus, of Ibn Arabi, a great Islamic mystic, among the greatest theorists of waḥdat al-wujūd or "unity of being". Rūmī manages to perfectly blend God's intoxicated enthusiasm of Shams-i Tabrīz, with the subtle speculations and visions of Ibn al-'Arabi.

The mystical vision of Rumi, through the Mevlana or rotating dervishis, still fascinates beyond the poems and mysticism of which all his work is imbued. Centuries later, an invisible thread unites the first, highly ascetic figure of Iqbal Masih


Iqbal Masih, in Urdu اقبال مسیح (Muridke, 1983 - Muridke, April 16, 1995), was a Pakistani child laborer, trade unionist and activist who became a symbol of the struggle against child labor. Born in 1983 in a very poor family, he was already working in a furnace at the age of four, five was sold by his father to a carpet seller to pay a debt of a few dollars.

Forced to work 10-12 hours a day, chained to the frame and undernourished, so much so as to damage growth, in 1992 he managed to sneak out of the factory and participate with other children in a demonstration of the Bonded Labor Liberation Front (BLLF ), an organization founded by Ullah Khan that obtained in the same year the promulgation of the Bonded Labor System Abolition Act. Returning to the carpet factory, he refused to continue working despite the beatings.

The owner argued that the debt instead of decreasing had increased to several thousand rupees, claiming to include the scarce food given to Iqbal, supposed processing errors, etc. The family was forced by threats to leave the village, Iqbal, hosted in a hostel by the BLLF, began to study again. From 1993 he began to travel, to participate in international conferences. Since then he started his adventure around the world to raise public awareness of the denied rights of Pakistani child laborers, thus contributing to the debate on world slavery and the international rights of children.

 In December 1994, he received the Reebok Human Rights Award at Northeastern University in Boston. Given its very young age, a special category was created: "Youth in Action". In February 1995 he participated in a meeting between representatives of the BLLF and the carpet industry, at the invitation of the newspaper "The Nation", in which the comparison reached harsh tones. Perhaps that meeting was fatal to him. He died in mysterious circumstances, in his hometown of Muridke (Pakistan), on April 16, 1995. Several schools were named in the western world; in Italy, in particular. In 2000, he received the "World's Children's Prize" for children's rights.

His remaining message to the story is: "No child should ever hold a work tool. The only work tools a child should hold are pens and pencils ».

Finally, having outlined three prominent figures who have made the history of the spiritual and activist path in defense of children, it is clear that the message of Islam is a message of love and peace. The latter in particular sees the constituent components of the pillars of Islam in the joint action, although located in different eras, of spirituality and activism.

Today, in the month in which Ramadan is celebrated, the need to unite the never-dormant spirituality of Shams-i Tabrīzī and of Jalāl ad-Dīn Moḥammad Rūmī is increasingly felt with the activism and humanitarian lesson of Iqbal Masih.

On the threshold of the third millennium, when it seems that the world is more than ever soaked with hate (the dark source in the poetry of Rumi, source of pain and evil) and of wars (Syria, Yemen, etc.), when they seem to be shipwrecked the last hopes (climate, environment, pollution, lack of values, etc.), here comes the profound voice of poetry that has its roots in the sources of good, of spirituality, in a renewed confidence in man and in the spark divine that is in him.

By Franca Colozzo



* Articolo pubblicato sul giornale dell'Associazione di Pace: GLOBAL VILLAGE FORUM - 


- Politica

Il Manifesto di Ventotene

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